4 min read
How fibroids cause miscarriage: the impact on reproductive health


Fibroids, harmless neoplasms in or around the uterus, are rather widespread among women. Even though fibroids per se are not particularly dangerous, they can have some severe effects, for example, cause a miscarriage. That is why it is crucial for women trying to get pregnant or those who are already pregnant to understand how fibroids can result in a miscarriage and affect their reproductive health. This paper covers the issue of fibroids and miscarriage and supplies information about symptoms, methods for diagnosis, ways of treating, and preventing the issue. 

How fibroids cause miscarriage: the impact on reproductive health

What are fibroids?

Fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas or myomas, are overgrowths now, and due to their benign nature, their size and location can differ. The types include: 

  • Submucosal fibroids: they are located just underneath the lining of the uterine cavity. 
  • Intramural fibroids: developed within the muscle wall of the uterus. 
  • Subserosal fibroids: developed on the outside part of the uterus. 
  • Pedunculated fibroids: they are attached to the uterus by means of a stalk-like growth.

How common is the problem and who is at risk? 

It is said that fibroids are widespread among women of reproductive age, with a larger prevalence in African American women. The following risk factors are listed: increasing age, a family history of fibroids, obesity, certain hormonal imbalances. 

How do fibroids cause a miscarriage?

Impact on the uterus 

The first reason is the impact on the uterus. The latter is disturbed in many ways, which makes it harder for the embryo to implant and develop their placenta. Submucosa fibroids tend to distort the uterine, which creates even more pressure, they may also block the fallopian tubes, and finally, raise the rates of getting pregnant. They may also impair the ability of the muscle to accommodate the continuously enlarging pregnancy. 

Effect on blood supply 

Fibroids may also impair the flow of blood to the developing baby, which will deprive the baby from the necessary nutrients. Conclusion: So, fibroids are the issue that can cause pregnancy issues and a likelihood of miscarriage. 

Hormonal Disruptions 

Fibroids may cause hormonal imbalances, disrupting the requisite hormonal milieu for a viable pregnancy. This can lead to adverse effects on the endometrium, with increased pregnancy loss risk associated with fibroids. Symptoms of Fibroids 

Common Symptoms

While some women with fibroids may not exhibit any accompanying symptoms, others may experience contraction abnormalities leading to: 

  • Heavy Bleeding 
  • Prolonged Periods 
  • Pelvic pressure or pain 
  • Frequent Urination 
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder 
  • Constipation 
  • Backache or leg pains

Symptoms During Pregnancy

On the other hand, pregnant women may experience increased uterine space pressure, which may manifest as increased pelvic pressure. Furthermore, fibroid degeneration may lead to abscesses with severe cases causing intense pain. Premature contractions often occur shortly after the first delivery.

Diagnosing Fibroids

Medical History and Physical Examination 

The initial stages of diagnosing fibroids entail the general medical history and conducting a physical examination by a healthcare provider. This involves discussing symptoms and observation during a pelvic exam. 

Imaging Tests 

Thereafter, imaging tests may be conducted to establish the magnitude as well as the size and location of the fibroids. These may include ultrasound, MRI, or hysteroscopy examination through the insertion of a camera into the uterus. 

Treatment Options Medications 

Though medications provide symptomatic relief, they do not treat the root cause of fibroids. These may include: 

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists: reduce estrogen and progesterone levels, leading to fibroid shrinking. 
  • Progestin-releasing IUD: reduces bleeding in the uterus. Non-Surgical Treatments Similarly, other non-invasive treatments include: 
  • UAE:  where the blood flow to the fibroids is halted, leading to their shrinking. 
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging -guided FUS: Ultrasonic waves are then directed at the fibroids to destroy them. Invasive Treatments

Surgical interventions 

Surgical treatments will vary depending on the fibroid size, number, and location. These may include: 

  • Myomectomy: involves the surgical removal of fibroids. 
  • Hysterectomy: the complete removal of the uterus.

Preventing Miscarriage

  • Regular Ultrasound Scanning: Regular monitoring using an ultrasound or MRI scan should be used to monitor the growth and highlight any complications at an early stage. 
  • Pre-Pregnancy Planning: Discussing the condition with a healthcare provider is essential for women with fibroids who want to get pregnant. Pre-pregnancy planning may also involve treatment aimed at reducing fibroids and the risk of miscarriage. 
  • Healthy Lifestyle Choices: Making healthy lifestyle choices, including a balanced diet, moderate physical activities, and stress management, can help to keep fibroids under control and ensure good reproductive health.


Q1. Can fibroids cause miscarriage?

Yes, fibroids can lead to such results. The questionable condition about fibroids and reproduction is associated with the state when submucosal fibroids increase the risk of miscarriage. 

Q2. What are the symptoms of fibroids during pregnancy? 

It is reported that pregnant women with this condition are expected to have such symptoms as increased pelvic pressure, severe pain associated with degeneration of fibroids, and premature contractions. 

Q3. How are fibroids diagnosed? 

The analysis of the patient’s relevant medical history, physical examination, and relevant imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI are used to diagnose fibroids. Treatment: Such health condition can be treated with medications, some non-surgical options like uterine artery embolization, and surgical procedures such as myomectomy and hysterectomy. 

Q4. Can it be prevented?  

It is true that fibroids cannot be prevented. However, they may be managed with the help of a healthy lifestyle and regular checks. 

Q5. Does it mean that fibroids always require surgery? 

Such an amount of therapy is not necessary. A decision is facilitated by the size, number and location of fibroids, the severity of patient’s symptoms, and fertility intentions. 


Fibroids are a common concern for women of reproductive age. Although most of them are benign and asymptomatic, they may become a significant cause of miscarriage. This paper has provided a brief literature review to help women affected by fibroids and the role they play in miscarriage. The paper has explored several steps that can be taken to control fibroids. The option that is likely to be of great help to women at a higher risk of miscarriage due to fibroids is to seek treatment to reduce the chances of miscarriage. Such is achievable through a BALINK between a patient and a healthcare provider before proceeding to conceive.